Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy among patient subgroups: A re-analysis using the Engel classification.
When patients were divided into specific subgroups, a statistically significant better outcome was found patients with normal mental functioning (p=0.029). In our series, results for VNS are clearly inferior to resective surgery, but comparable to other treatment modalities for refractory epilepsy. With combined class I and II outcomes around 20%, and another 50% of patients having worthwhile improvement, VNS is a viable alternative when resective surgery is not feasible.
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